On Kawara died yesterday. Based on my single, singular encounter with him, I can attest that he lived as he worked – with uncanny precision and determination and individuality. Months of appeals to his gallery preceded the interview I required. My qualifications and intentions were interrogated by his gallery with CIA-like scrutiny before I was granted permission to conduct my interview.
I was instructed to arrive at his favorite dusky bar in SoHo and immediately announced that he does not permit note-taking. I never posed a single question. Instead, he launched into a monologue – an onslaught of fascinating observations and uncanny theories. After three hours, I begged him to stop, since my mental storage capacity was crammed to capacity and I feared total collapse.
Technologies devised by humans to retard or halt the decomposing of organic material have been serving a double purpose since ancient times. On the one hand, by preventing foods from spoiling, they prolonged life. These technologies also ‘prolonged death’ by preventing bodies from decaying. Thus, the evolution of techniques utilized in burial parallels the history of food preservation. The kitchen technologies that were duplicated for the graveyard include salting, pickling, freezing, drying, honey curing, flaying, bleedings, and eviscerating. They were all practiced by the earliest Mediterranean civilizations to preserve both meats and the dead.
Amy Franceschini applies her knowledge of sophisticated technologies to undermine contrasting relationships between humans and the technologies we have devised. On the one hand she nullifies the possibility that as humans become increasingly dependent upon them, these technologies will become our masters instead of our servants, entities to be feared instead of exploited.
“Photosynthesis Robot”, for example, is a real, functioning robot. However, instead of asserting its independence, Franceschini focuses on the robot’s reliance on human tending for its survival. Despite the fact that the robot even generates its own energy by conducting photosynthesis, it is totally dependent upon humans to provide its requirements for ‘survival’: water, light, and space. The duty this robot is designed to perform fulfills the most utopian vision of robotic service. This one conducts a chore that is described as oppressive and dangerous, but benefits both society and the environment. It chases after SUV’s capturing CO2 emissions! Thus, this robot’s capabilities will not threaten human supremacy and control.
The legacy of Herbert Bayer is being maintained and expanded by Jackie Brookner. Like Bayer’s Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks, Brookner’s Fargo Project will be sited in a stormwater detention basin that prevents flooding from rainstorms. In both instances, this basin is transformed into a multifunctional neighborhood commons. However, Brookner’s inclusive manner of accomplishing this goal diverges from the singularity of the modernist master’s approach. Her method reflects current art practices in which artists invite community involvement in the creative process. Brookner’s work is ultimately collaboratory. She has invited representatives of the city of Fargo, its residents, and local artists to help devise a program and design for the site.
As a result, the project is certain to reflect Fargo’s cultural diversity. Its population includes Native Americans from many different nations and immigrants from over 20 countries. Members of all these groups are joining together and pooling their ideas about how to feature stormwater as a shared community resource. Brookner describes this ambitious project by stating, “Over several months our ecological artist team and other volunteers engaged over 400 people of all ages and backgrounds in the initial visioning outreach.
In ancient times, finger nails, teeth, fingers, and tongues comprised the anatomical tool chest that performed every life-sustaining function. Humanity might have remained dependent upon this set of tools were not for the existence of human cognition which soon invented ways to expand the tool kit with sticks, stones, plant fibers, hides, sinew, and bones. The work performed by tools received a massive boost when the mind’s analytic powers discovered mechanics, levers, screws, gears, wheels, and pulleys. Even greater tooling potentials were unleashed when the mind’s inventive powers harnessed non-human sources of power. That is when cattle, water wheels, wind mills, steam engines, internal combustion engines, electricity, jet engines, rocket technologies, and nuclear power were successively enlisted to serve the human demand for tools. By augmenting both precision and power, these energy upgrades extended the range of human manipulation both microscopically and macroscopically. Today, robots assist micro-surgery, rigs drill two miles into the earth, cranes lift massive weights into the air. The stirring narrative of humanity’s tooling history can be summarized by comparing the carving potential of finger nails, stone flakes, metal blades, power saws, dynamite, sand blasting, pneumatic chisels, hydraulic excavators, and laser beams.
STRATEGIES FOR ACQUIRING
STUDIO ART SUPPLIES
– RECIPE – several ingredients are combined in precise proportions and manipulated, either ground, distilled, heated, evaporated, stirred, etc.
– FORMULA – laboratory concoction with ingredients that have been removed from their original context and are no longer distinguishable
– PRESCRIPTION – use of art medium generating strategies that simultaneously cure an environmental malady
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ART MEDIUMS
– BAD = purchasing most commercial art products.
– LESS BAD = purchasing products manufactured to minimize waste, reduce toxic by-products, and avoid depleting resources.
When Nicole Fournier established InTerreArt, I wonder if she consciously chose a title that is resonant with layered meanings.
“Inter-Art” (integrated arts) is a term that refers to the merging of formerly distinctive art forms. Fournier combines installation, performance, and social practice. However, she expanded the typical application of the term ‘inter’ in a work entitled “Companions and Transformations“. Instead of combining diverse forms of artistic expression, she combined two kinds of human disdain: weeds and discarded textiles.
Fournier assigns value to each. The plants are actively ‘rewilded’. The process involves creating protective containers so that plants can thrive on the cement surfaces that prevail in urban settings. She accomplishes this by gathering discarded coats, covers, sheets and other used textiles, using them to create protective containers so that the perennial root systems of wild edible plants can prosper.
“InTerreArt” (terre = terra= earth) provides an opportunity to add two additional meanings to her enterprise. On the one hand, terre indicates that earth (soil) is key to Fournier’s installations, performances, and social practices. She emplys earth as a medium of transformation and productivity.
The arts are making increasingly important contributions to envisioning sustainability and implementing the means to attain it. In order to fulfill this challenging environmental mandate, these artists are boldly revamping art’s traditional themes, mediums, aesthetics, processes, roles, and skills. In the process, aspects of art that have been cherished for hundreds of years are being discarded as irrelevant and replaced with unprecedented alternatives.
Eco artists may, for example, disrupt conventions in art by rejecting rarity, craftsmanship, authenticity, stylistic consistency, and aesthetic appeal in order to defer to natural forces. They may adopt nature’s manner of recycling materials by selecting mediums that are materially unstable, or they may disregard or reject the intention to produce an enduring art work in order to harmonize with such dynamic conditions as growth and decay, weather, and geological cycles. Furthermore, eco artists may replace static arrangements of discrete objects in space to envision the vibrant interconnectedness of all living beings. Ultimately, eco artists’ concern for the welfare of Earth systems and their diverse populations subsumed the age-old association of the artist with self expression.
“Interdisciplinary” is an acknowledged component of eco art. It factors significantly in eco art discourse where the term is applied equally to the thematic, procedural, and material components of eco art. In each of these instances, eco art is leaping across conventional art borders and landing on turf that had formerly been claimed by fields as diverse as waste management, agriculture, biology, and energy production.
Less attention has been paid to an equally significant ‘inter’ component of eco art. That is “interaudience,” the diversity of recipients for this genre of art. Eco art’s remarkable inclusiveness is decisevly transforming the nature of contemporary art practice and contemporary art criticism.
Brandon Ballengee provides a case-in-point. Since January, nine media outlets have requested interviews with him. They include: