Introduction: If diversity is a sign of vitality, the environmental movement is bursting with good health. As evidence, consider the mélange of environmentally-related strategies for assuring the vigor of the planet. Only ten representative approaches are identified in this volume.
Another volume would have been needed to include Blue Greens (eco-capitalists), Red Greens (eco-socialists), Wild Greens (youth activists), as well as eco-imperialists, eco-pagans, eco-feminists, eco-warriors, eco-fascists, eco-terrorists, permaculturists, and more. Each group is bolstered by its own experts, members, funders, and artist advocates.
As a result, the chambers of the contemporary environmental movement are reverberating with pronouncements of contrasting gospels. Reasoned arguments are heard amid impassioned pleas and warnings. They are all grappling with an ever-expanding data base demonstrating the effects of human behavior upon aquatic systems, animal populations, atmospheric conditions, soil composition, and plant growth. Each distinctive position promotes a particular course of ethical/practical/social/emotional/scientific action. Thus, all environmentalists are advocates. As a movement, environmentalism represents diverse and numerous advocacies. The following identifies ten archetypical eco approaches.